This course provides the foundation for understanding basic research methods and the application of research findings to the health care industry.
The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: Transcription The first step in transcription is the partial unwinding of the DNA molecule so that the portion of DNA that codes for the needed protein can be transcribed.
The new strand of RNA is made according to the rules of base pairing: After transcription, the new RNA strand is released and the two unzipped DNA strands bind together again to form the double helix. Because the DNA template remains unchanged after transcription, it is possible to transcribe another identical molecule of RNA immediately after the first one is complete.
A single gene on a DNA strand can produce enough RNA to make thousands of copies of the same protein in a very short time. Translation In translation, mRNA is sent to the cytoplasm, where it bonds with ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis.
Ribosomes have three important binding sites: At its tail end, tRNA has an acceptor stem that attaches to a specific amino acid. At its head, tRNA has three nucleotides that make up an anticodon.
An anticodon pairs complementary nitrogenous bases with mRNA. The first codon, which is always the start codon methionine, fills the P site and the second codon fills the A site. A peptide bond is formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the methionine in the P site. One way to remember this is that the A site brings new amino acids to the growing polypeptide at the P site.
The appropriate tRNA carrying the appropriate amino acid pairs bases with this new codon in the A site. A peptide bond is formed between the two adjacent amino acids held by tRNA molecules, forming the first two links of a chain.
The ribosome slides again. The tRNA that was in the P site is let go into the cytoplasm, where it will eventually bind with another amino acid. Another tRNA comes to bind with the new codon in the A site, and a peptide bond is formed between the new amino acid to the growing peptide chain.
The process continues until one of the three stop codons enters the A site.
At that point, the protein chain connected to the tRNA in the P site is released.It is actually a very basic description of a very broad subject: microbiology.
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The artist of this surrealistic painting uses the shades of red, blue, and black to (with perfect harmony, perfection and precision) bring out visual illusions and abstract figures similar to those found in works of some of the world's renowned artists. Basic Biology Directions: answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling and grammar.
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