Historical context[ edit ] The historical context within which Plautus wrote can be seen, to some extent, in his comments on contemporary events and persons. Plautus was a popular comedic playwright while Roman theatre was still in its infancy and still largely undeveloped. At the same time, the Roman Republic was expanding in power and influence. Any character in his plays could be compared to a god.
Introduction Holism has often been taken as the thesis that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Several different interpretations of this epigram prove relevant to physics, as we shall see.
Here is a correspondingly vague initial statement of nonseparability: The state of the whole is not constituted by states of its parts. It is already apparent both that holism and nonseparability are related notions and that their exact relation needs to be clarified.
In one interpretation, holism is a methodological thesis Section 2to the effect that the best way to study the behavior of a complex system is to treat it as a whole, and not merely to analyze the structure and behavior of its component parts.
Alternatively, holism may be taken as a metaphysical thesis Section 3: There are some wholes whose natures are simply not determined by the nature of their parts.
Methodological holism stands opposed to methodological reductionism, in physics as well as in other sciences. But it is a certain variety of metaphysical holism that is more closely related to nonseparability.
What is at issue here is the extent to which the properties of the whole are determined by the properties of its parts: In turn, nonseparability can be analyzed either as state nonseparability Section 5or as spatiotemporal nonseparability Section 6.
By and large, a system in classical physics can be analyzed into parts, whose states and properties determine those of the whole they compose Section 7.
But the state of a system in quantum theory resists such analysis. The quantum state of a system specifies its chances of exhibiting various properties on measurement.
In ordinary quantum mechanics, the most complete such specification is given by what is called a pure state. Even when a compound system has a pure state, some of its subsystems may not have their own pure states.
Superficially, such entanglement of states already demonstrates nonseparability. At a deeper level, it has been maintained that the puzzling statistics that arise from measurements on entangled quantum systems either demonstrate, or are explicable in terms of, holism or nonseparability rather than any problematic action at a distance Sections 89.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect Section 10 also appears to exhibit action at a distance, as the behavior of electrons is modified by a magnetic field they never experience.
But this effect may be understood instead as a result of the local action of nonseparable electromagnetism. Puzzling correlations arise between distant simultaneous measurements even in the vacuum, according to quantum field theory Section A form of quantum theory used to study them represents systems by algebras of operators with new kinds of states defined on them, thereby making room for failures of state and system separability with no analogs in ordinary quantum mechanics.
String theory Section 13 is an ambitious research program in the framework of quantum field theory. According to string theory, all fundamental particles can be considered to be excitations of underlying non-pointlike entities in a multi-dimensional space.
Methodological Holism Methodologically, holism stands opposed to reductionism, somewhat as follows. An understanding of a certain kind of complex system is best sought at the level of principles governing the behavior of the whole system, and not at the level of the structure and behavior of its component parts.
An understanding of a complex system is best sought at the level of the structure and behavior of its component parts.It has sometimes been suggested that quantum phenomena exhibit a characteristic holism or nonseparability, and that this distinguishes quantum from classical physics.
Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking. This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life.
We seem to have established a nascent tradition here on srmvision.com around fifth Wednesdays, and I’m by no means distressed by that. The first month with five Wednesdays since the new blog launched, which was this last August, I decided on the spur of the moment to ask my readers to propose a topic for.
Intelligence To be intelligent you first have to know what being Intelligent is. And you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant is just another word for "Not knowing".But not knowing is not always obvious or clearly srmvision.com's because learning is not fully understood.
The more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Apr 02, · I’ve tried to explain this for decades to people. The year to me is like the Candyland game path. It’s more 3-D than the pic though. I haven’t found anyone else yet who saw this or who.