A Brief History of Supervision and Evaluation Before providing the specific suggestions for the initiatives described in Chapter 1, it is useful to consider the history of teacher supervision and evaluation in the United States. We include the topic of evaluation in our review because it is so commonly linked to supervision. The Early Days of Supervision and Evaluation In the s, education was not considered a professional discipline or field of study. Early towns in the United States turned to existing power structures, such as local government and the clergy, to hire teachers and make judgments about their teaching.
Definition[ edit ] Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished.
So evaluation can be formativethat is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organisation.
It can also be summativedrawing lessons from a completed action or project or an organisation at a later point in time or circumstance.
Having said this, evaluation has been defined as: A systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design, implementation, improvement, or outcomes of a program. It is a resource-intensive process, frequently requiring resources, such as, evaluate expertise, labor, time, and a sizable budget  "The critical assessment, in as objective a manner as possible, of the degree to which a service or its component parts fulfills stated goals" St Leger and Wordsworth-Bell.
The core of the problem is thus about defining what is of value. There are two function considering to the evaluation purpose Formative Evaluations provide the information on the improving a product or a process Summative Evaluations provide information of short-term effectiveness or long-term impact to deciding the adoption of a product or process.
The central reason for the poor utilization of evaluations is arguably[ by whom? This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Depending on the topic of interest, there are professional groups that review the quality and rigor of evaluation processes.
Evaluating programs and projects, regarding their value and impact within the context they are implemented, can be ethically challenging. Evaluators may encounter complex, culturally specific systems resistant to external evaluation.
Furthermore, the project organization or other stakeholders may be invested in a particular evaluation outcome. Finally, evaluators themselves may encounter " conflict of interest COI " issues, or experience interference or pressure to present findings that support a particular assessment.
General professional codes of conductas determined by the employing organization, usually cover three broad aspects of behavioral standards, and include inter- collegial relations such as respect for diversity and privacyoperational issues due competencedocumentation accuracy and appropriate use of resourcesand conflicts of interest nepotismaccepting gifts and other kinds of favoritism.
The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation has developed standards for program, personnel, and student evaluation.
The Joint Committee standards are broken into four sections: Utility, Feasibility, Propriety, and Accuracy. Various European institutions have also prepared their own standards, more or less related to those produced by the Joint Committee.Figure Conclusions and Recommendations from the RAND Study; Conclusion.
Recommendation "To succeed, a teacher evaluation system must suit the educational goals, management style, conception of teaching, and community values of the school district" (Wise et al., , p.
Job evaluation is a subjective process; therefore, whether job evaluation is conducted internally or externally it is important the evaluator is consistent. Writing and updating job descriptions: job evaluation needs to be based on current up to date job descriptions. The basic difference between these two methods lies in the sense that, under non-quantitative methods, a job is compared as a whole with other jobs in the organisation, whereas in case of quantitative methods, the key factors of a job are selected and, then, measured.
Continuous Improvement. Resources for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of program improvement and professional development activities. In this article, we provide 1) an overview on change management and explain 2) the major approaches and models of change management..
CHANGE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW. Change Management is the term that is used to refer to the change or transitioning people, groups, companies and projects from one state to another. The classification standard for the Economics and Social Science Services (EC) Group is a point-rating plan consisting of an introduction, the definition of the occupational group, the rating elements in the job evaluation plan, the rating scale and the level point boundaries.