Share via Email 'Class size does matter for the younger pupils in the first two to four years in school, and small classes are particularly beneficial for the more disadvantaged and initially lower-attaining pupils. Murdo Macleod Class sizes have been in the news recently. On Thursday the Labour party pledged that if elected it would cap class sizes at 30 for pupils aged five to seven years. By contrast, last week the head of the OECD Program of International Student Assessment Pisa surveys, Andreas Schleicherset out the seven big myths about top-performing school systems, with myth number four being that small classes raise standards.
In his words he noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor.
Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school Adeyemi, This varies from country to country.
Kedney saw it as a tool that can be used to measure the performance of the education system. In relation to size, Stepaniuk reported that the rational utilization of classroom space depends upon class-size. This in turn would depend upon the area of the classroom.
He argued that there are approved norms of class-size, 40 pupils per class for grades 1 to 8 and 35 pupils per class for the senior classes; while the standard allocation of class space per pupil is 1: In Nigeria, however, Okoro reported that the class-size in secondary schools ranges between 35 or40 students.
He argued that few pupils per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Adeyemi reported that average class-size influences the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class-size in schools while Nwadiani argued that the higher the class-size, the lower the cost of education.
He contended however, that most classrooms are over-crowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education. Ajayi supported the viewpoints and argued that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size.
Other The effect of class size on that affect student achievement are school population and class size Gentry, ; and Swift, The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in Nigeria universities.
Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery.
Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance.
These factors can include: The idea that school population and class size might affect student performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes Moe, In addition, Dillon and Kokkelenberg pointed out from their research that large classes negatively affect some students more than others.
According to them, class size has a negative logarithm with relationship to grades and that effect of class size on grades differs across different categories of students. Small classes may benefit students more when instruction relies on discussion, by allowing more students to participate and be recognized, than when lecture and seatwork are the main modes of instruction.
According to Nye, Hedges and Konstantopoulos For these students, smaller classes can shrink the achievement gap and lead to reduced grade retention, fewer disciplinary actions, less dropping out, and more students taking college entrance exams Krueger and Whitmore, The most dramatic impact seems to be achieved by reaching students early.
Ideally, students should experience small classes of 13 to 17 students when entering school, in either kindergarten or first grade. For example, students may pay better attention when there are fewer students in the room.
Similarly, teachers who use a lot of small group work may find their instruction is more effective in smaller classes, because fewer students remain unsupervised while the small group meets with the teacher.
In these instances, teachers could carry on the same practices, but achievement would rise in smaller classes because the same instruction would be more effective. This view point shows that there are returns to investing in smaller classes for certain students and it provides some evidence on why past literature has produced such inconsistent findings on the impact of class size.
Smith on the other hand, suggest that small class sizes in the first four years of schooling can lead to higher attainment by the time the pupil reaches secondary education. According to these researchers, pupils taught in smaller classes during the primary phase of their education were more likely to go on and eventually proceed to higher education.
Debate around the inverse connection between class size and student achievement The aspect of the subject area comes into question; would it perhaps be different depending on whether the subject is content, concept or practical- oriented?
Instructional activities offer significant boosts to achievement, but the results of instruction do not seem to differ between small and large classes.
There has however been much need to view the aspect of class size as a holistic factor that does not operate in isolation. For three decades, a belief that public education is wasteful and inefficient has played an important role in debates about its reform.
Those who have proposed greater spending programs for educational institutions to improve student achievement have been on the defensive.
According to Trow the presumption has been that changes in structure and governance of schools, standards, accountability, and assessment, to name a few are the only way to improve student outcomes. Traditional interventions, like smaller class size and higher teacher salaries, have been presumed ineffective.
Surely class size reductions are beneficial in specific circumstances for specific groups of students, subject matters, and teachers.
Secondly, class size reductions invariably involve hiring more teachers yet teacher quality is a more important factor than class size in affecting student outcomes.evidence that class size effects vary with students' age.
And others studies indicate that class size effects vary with subject matter—even within a discipline (McConnell & Sosin, ; Raimondo et al., ). This indicates a need for a specific study on the effects of class size in university-level mathematics courses.
Florida's Class Size Reduction Amendment History. In , citizens approved an amendment to the Florida Constitution that set limits on the number of students in core classes (Math, English, Science, etc.) in the state's public schools.
effect of class size to vary substantially with the teacher, few studies account for the teacher effect. Some studies include just one teacher (e.g., Thompson, ). The study is specifically talking about the effect of class size and effective class control on students academic performance in selected schools in, The study will concentrate on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning.
Significance of the Study. Class size is an issue in American K education that researchers have examined and debated for years. Documented research studies conducted on the impact of class size on student. Does Class Size Affect Student Achievement or Are There Other variables to Consider?
Weighing the benefits of smaller class sizes versus cost has been an ongoing debate for decades. There are those who claim smaller class size does not affect achievement, and point out that increasing the pupil/teacher ratio by just 1, could (collectively) save.